What is the name of the star farthest from Earth and how does it measure it?

When we lifted up the head to the top and look at the sky at night, we could see scattered in the sky is black no stars. They are small dots that emit rays. There are stars that look great and bright. There is also a star smaller and dimmer.
Before answering the question of Airlangga, we start from the most basic thing: what is it star?
What is it star
Stars is a celestial object that emits heat and light, the result of the reaction of collisions of particles-nuclear particles in it. In short, star is a huge ball of fire.
One of the stars of the popular is the Sun who each day shining on the Earth.
According to the science of astronomy, the science that studies celestial objects such as planets, comets and stars, there are stars who stopped issuing heat and light, because nuclear particle in his body exhausted. Though it does not emit light, they are still referred to as the star.
The farthest star from the Milky way galaxy
Astronomers first looking around 600 stars in the space with the help of a telescope is the William Herschel. In 1780, he concludes there are a number of stars clustered regularly to the direction of the sky, namely in the center of the Milky way galaxy.
And what’s a galaxy?
The galaxy is a group of massive stars (very much) about the billions of stars that are bound by the force of gravity is very strong. The sun is one of the stars in the Milky way galaxy.
The Milky way is a spiral galaxy that has a diameter of 100 thousand light-years and is still surrounded by the halo of the galaxy – a collection of individual stars, dust, and gas that surrounds the galaxy – which stretched along the 500 thousand light-years. Halo in the Milky way contains stars explorers the rest of the results from the collision of small galaxies forming galaxy, the Milky way.
Astronomers from the United States John Bochanski and his team have found two stars most at the far end of the Milky way galaxy.
The two stars are so far away it was given the name ULAS J0744+25 and ULAS J0015+1.
The distance of the two stars from the Earth is about five times farther away than the Magellanic Cloud, the Small satellite of the Milky way.
Within the row is 775 thousand light-years and 900 thousand light-years. In simple terms, 1 light year is equal to the distance as far as 9,461 × 1015 meters, this is equivalent to 236 million times the circumference of the Earth.
The farthest star
Thanks to the development of technology is more advanced, NASA (Space Agency of the United States) able to make a new history with the HUBBLE space telescope. The telescope is able to capture the stars, a distance of billions of light years, far above the ability of ordinary telescopes that are difficult to identify stars with a distance of over 100 million light years.
With HUBBLE, astronomers were able to shoot a blue star of our solar system the distance is about 9 billion light-years. Blue star outermost is called Icarus with the code name is MACS J1149+2223 Lensed Star (LS1).
Physicists from the University of Minnesota in the United States Patrick Kelly, who led the research, said the discovery of the star of Icarus is not a supernova, not a gamma-ray burst, not a galaxy. Icarus is the star of the stable as the Sun is shining all the time.
So, so far, Icarus is the farthest star from Earth, a distance of about 9 billion light years, which could be seen with a telescope.
To calculate the distance stars
Since the invention of the telescope in the 17th century, scientists began to observe the stars and other celestial objects.
The famous astronomer from the Uk who discovered Halley’s comet in the 16th century, Edmond Halley, stating the motion alone of a pair of stars “remain” close turns out to show a change in position compared since the measurement is done by Ptolemaeus (90-168 Ce) and Hipparchus (190-120 BC). This change can be seen through the change of the angle of parallax.
In 1838, the German astronomer Friedrich Bessel using the technique of parallax to measure the distance of the star 61 Cygni. This is the first star that distance can be measured from Earth. The technique of parallax is a method of measuring a way to see the shift of two-point fixed relative to one another.
A simple explanation of the technique of parallax like this. When you shook your finger in front of the eyes, close your right eye and then change close your left eye. If you see the position of your fingers against background objects, for example a wall or screen, then the object will be seen to shift. Well, shifting method that is called as the angle of parallax.
From the measurement of stars other than the Sun, no star angle paralaksnya less than 1 arc seconds. The smaller the angle of parallax of the star, then the star will be farther away from the Earth.
The closest star from Earth is the star Proxima Centauri with the angle of parallax within 0,772 arc seconds or within 4,22 light years.

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