definition and scope of graphic design

Before the term graphic design was widely known, people working in the world of graphics/printing and the media were familiar with the term layouter as the person in charge of laying out letters and images on the printed paper. Previously also known as typesetters. After the use of personal computer technology (personal computer / PC) to make publications, in the 80s we also know the term desktop publishing (DTP). This term refers to the ability of computers to make it easier for humans to create publications, arrange layouts and print images and text. Desktop publishing is a system that consists of several components, namely: a personal computer, a printer, a scanner and several other supporting software and peripherals. And in its use it does not require a lot of space and personnel (do it yourself). Now this is commonly referred to as a computer graphics system. Some people interpret computer graphics systems together with the term graphic design (graphic design). This is reflected in several courses and workshops putting the label “graphic design” on the practice of using Adobe Photoshop and CorelDRAW. There is no “design science” at all. This is actually wrong.

Above described desktop publishing is a system of tools (tools) to produce a visual work. While graphic design is the “science” of producing good visual works and artistic value. Now also developing what is called digital art (digital art) and digital imaging (digital imaging). Both are equally formed with computer graphics technology.

Some people think the term graphic design refers to the field of print media only, such as newspapers, books, posters and other printed publications. However, now with the advent of internet technology, video editing technology (video editing) and visual effects, graphic design has developed the term into visual communication design.

So, someone who makes a website with an attractive appearance is the job of a graphic design/visual design job. But people who are in it, prefer to use the term web design. Likewise with video editing jobs, preferring to be referred to as video editors.

Now there are also print media that use new terms as visual design, layout, artistic, artistic stylist, artistic and layout, graphic design (see KONTAN tabloid), graphic, design and artistic, artistic-production, art & design. that distinguishes layout work and graphic design. Tempo magazine, for example. And there are also those who are against the mainstream, such as MIX magazine, and Rumah, using only the term “production”, Tabloid Spice! use the term art. As for the book media, there are those that use cover layouts and content settings, layouts, settings/layouts.

For newspapers that have very complex management, such as TIME magazine, specifically dealing with visual displays requires more people with more detailed work areas. TIME Magazine in the masthead lists the positions as follows: Art [first] is divided into International Art Director and Designer. Then the Makeup, Art Director, Picture Director. Then Art [second] is divided into Deputy Art Director, Managing Art Director, Covers, Associates Art Directors, Assistant Art Directors, Designers, Maps and Charts: Associate Graphics Director, Chief of Cartography.

Regarding many of these terms, some graphic designers are quite hesitant to use them. Which is more appropriate to use? For example, between Graphic Design or Visual Communication Design (DKV). If you refer to the Icograda (world graphic designer community) congress in 2000 in Seoul, there are some important notes about this confusion. Thus Icograda: The term ‘graphic design’ has been technologically undermind. A better term is visual communication design. Visual communication design has become more and more a profession that integrity idioms and approaches of several disciplines in a multi-layered and in-depth visual competence. Boundaries between disciplines are becoming more fluid. Nevertheless designers need to recognize professional limitations.

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